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What is an effective infectious disease control ?

Why hand washing is effective for infection control.

The causes of infectious diseases are classified into three types: airborne infection, droplet infection, and contact transmission. In particular, about 80% is said to be caused by the transmission of bacteria by contact. In the US CDC guidelines for infectious disease control, it is strongly recommended to wash your hands and clean the dirt. If it is possible to block propagation, it will be a more effective measure. Generally, it is said that removing bacteria by washing hands cleanly is effective for blocking the spread of bacteria. However, as a matter of course, in reality, it is impossible to clean the hand each time it touches something, so it cannot be said that it is sufficient as a countermeasure. As a conceivable method, if it is possible to create an environment in which bacteria and the like are not always present in the other party as shown below, the transmission of bacteria can be blocked.

    Overview of bacterial transmission by hand contact


Types and uses of antibacterial agents

Antibacterial agents are broadly divided into organic synthetic agents, metals, metal salts and other naturally derived bio-based antibacterial agents. In addition, antibacterial agents are required in all of our living environments in the medical, food, agricultural, livestock and fish farming markets. However, since most of them are water-based, the effect is transient and at the same time they are toxic, so it is often important to control the amount used. In addition, these characteristics impose a burden on the environment and are often regarded as a problem as they pollute the environment.

  Classification of antibacterial agents

  ◎ Organic synthetic agent: quaternary ammonium compound, polyhexamethylene viguanite, tri Crosan, zinc pyrithione Note) Organically synthesized antibacteria agents and bactericides occupy about 55% of the market. It was

◎ Metals and metal salts: silver, copper, zinc, etc.

◎ Naturally-derived antibacterial agent (bio-based): Chitosan and others

         Circulation of environmental pollution

Characteristics of practical antibacterial agents required to block the transmission of bacteria, etc.

 ◎ A non-toxic antibacterial agent that does not affect the human body is required. Because parts that are closely related to the living environment are often used continuously for a long period of time. Basically, it is highly questioned that it is harmless and safe to the human body before the action effect. It is. For example, if FDA approves it as a device, it is generally biocompatible. It is necessary to clear specifically, cytotoxicity, skin irritation and sensitization. Especially with regard to cytotoxicity, there are four levels of toxicity. There are very few antibacterial agents that can clear 1 which is judged to be absence of toxicity.

◎ An antibacterial agent that does not impose a burden on the non-eluting environment is required. As mentioned above, about 55% of the world's used water-based antibacterial agents are organically synthesized. Many of these are toxic and function when dissolved in water. The load on the border is inevitable. It is necessary for the individual to be a non- eluting system for infection control. At the same time as avoiding the burden on the environment from bacteria and etc come into contact with the antibacterial agent. By doing so, antibacterial activity becomes possible continuously. First if the antibacterial effect is continuous, antibacterial measures with a small number of bacteria before proliferation is easily possible, so the infection control measures, it is considered that immediate effect is not always necessary.

◎ An antibacterial agent that is difficult to produce resistant bacteria is required. Antibiotics are essential for infection control treatment, but many resistant bacteria use antibiotics. It is said that it occurs because it is used extensively. In addition, antibiotics are livestock. It is often used in fish farms and these antibiotics are important for efficiency. The current situation is that the reduction has been raised, but it has not been easily realized. It is said that resistant bacteria are not only stopped in hospitals, but also spread throughout the city. It has been used, and the term community-acquired infection has been used many times recently. People with low immunity is a very serious issue. Also, the pharmaceutical manufacturers have a huge amount of time for investing developing funds to develop antibiotics, but developing resistant bacteria at an early stage, G7 also often hesitates to develop because it is not possible to collect funds. The depletion of antibiotics has been pointed out at the summits of major countries. For reference, the graph below shows the number of recent developments of antibiotics developed in the United States.Only two antibiotics have been registered with FDA in the last four years.

      Development status of antibiotics in the United States 


In order to prevent the development of resistant bacteria, if there is a continuous antibacterial agent, the number of bacteria before growth is small.Since it is thought that it is possible to kill completely at a stage therefore the development of elution antibacterial agents becomes important.

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