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Why it is so difficult to control the infections ?

 The risks of invisible bacteria

The first reason why it is difficult to take measures against infectious diseases is that crisis management is difficult because bacteria are invisible. Initially, the starting point for problem development, whether drug-resistant or virus, seems to be small in amount. We often only notice its existence when it continues to grow invisibly and start to harm people. For example, if you can notice it with your five senses, which is also a human sense, you can protect yourself to some extent before it grows, but if you have an odor that is one of your five senses, you will notice that there are many germs there.

Harmful bacteria and harmless bacteria cannot be distinguished easily

Harmful bacteria are present in many germs in the actual living environment, so we cannot respond because we cannot identify where they are. In addition, because it cannot be determined whether it is harmful or harmless, it cannot be dealt with.

Several bacteria before growth can hardly be evaluated in the living environment.

It is said that even if the number of harmful bacteria is small, it does little harm to humans, and it proliferates and increases in number to harm humans. For example, unless a large number of animals die or many people die, the incident will not be noticed and will not be treated as a problem. It is almost impossible to find and identify among many germs at several stages before the growth of bacteria and viruses that are considered to be harmful in our living environment.

Infectious diseases are unprecedented to be resolved manually

Infectious diseases are said to be an eternal issue for humankind because there is no precedent for humans to solve them in the past. For reference, the article excerpted from Wikipedia is attached below. It describes infectious diseases that have had enormous social, economic and cultural impacts in the world history especially in posterity. Medicine has evolved through the quest for control and treatment of infectious diseases. The scale of infectious diseases has expanded due to ethnic and cultural exchanges, the expansion of the European world and the integration of the world. When pathogenic microorganisms or pathogens (bacteria such as mycoplasma and chlamydia, spirochete, rickettsia, viruses, fungi, protozoans, parasites) invade the human or animal body or body, colonize and multiply, and cause infection, they destroy tissues. When a pathogen releases toxins and harms the body, it becomes ill after a certain incubation period. This is called an infectious disease. There is an infectious disease as a synonym, which refers to an infectious disease that is infectious. In addition, the epidemic of infectious diseases is called epidemic. The history of infectious diseases along with the history of the emergence and evolution of living organisms has been a major part of human disease from prehistoric times to modern times. Records of infectious diseases and epidemics are already counted as one of the four disasters in Babylonian "Epic of Gilgamesh" in ancient Mesopotamian civilization, and the prestige of the pharaoh became a plague god in the year of epidemics in Egypt at the same time. Even in China, the wording that occupies the plague has been confirmed from archaeological records engraved with the oracle bone script in the 13th century BC. In Japan, during the Heian period, Shinto rituals were held nationwide to pray for the end of the plague. People's responses to disasters have varied historically and regionally, but on the other hand, we consider people's actions, the views of epidemics, views of life and death, beliefs, philosophies, and the development of science that have been the background of their actions. This will deepen our understanding of human history, economy, and society. There was a tendency to regard infectious diseases as a threat of the past due to the spread of antibiotics, mandatory vaccination, improvement of public health, etc. New situations have emerged that overturn optimism, and the threat still casts a great shadow on human society.

The outbreaks of major infectious diseases in the past

Infectious disease name  Epidemic start year Main epidemic area Remarks/ Impact

Plague         541     Europe   10,000 people+died/day

Plague (black death disease) 1347 Europe A rise of Renaissance Smallpox 1492 North America Brought by Columbus Typhus 1812 Europe Napoleon's expedition to Russia failed

Cholera 1817 Worldwide An opportunity for sewerage maintenance

Tuberculosis 1820 Europe Stagnation after the Industrial Revolution

Spanish flu 1918 Worldwide The end of World War I

Yellow fever 1928 Africa Researcher Hideo Noguchi died

Hong Kong flu 1968 Worldwide Expanded by the developed air network

AIDS 1981 Worldwide Due to HIV virus SARS 2002 China A type of coronavirus

New influenza 2009 Worldwide Also known as swine flu

MERS 2012 Worldwide A type of coronavirus

Ebola hemorrhagic fever 2014 Africa Extremely high case fatality rate

New Coronavirus 2020 Worldwide Spread of infection from Wuhan, China

Infectious disease control will officially be on the agenda at the G7 Summit.

Infectious diseases also use a large amount of antibiotics for treatment, especially in hospitals, it is also a place where many drug-resistant bacteria are present. In addition, it is undeniable that many people who goes to the hospital for hospitalization or treatment are generally weak after surgery, elderly people, infants and other immunocompromised people. And they are all susceptible to infection. Although hospitals have staff specializing in infection control and manage them sufficiently, problems may occur because crisis management is not always sufficient because bacteria are invisible. In medical treatment, the progress in treatment is remarkable, but at the same time, the cause of evaluation technology for infection is advancing. For example, genetic analysis has established a technique for identifying the infection route, making it easier to identify the responsibility of the hospital. In Germany, there have already been many lawsuits against hospitals, doctors, nurses, etc., and Prime Minister Merkel raised the issue as the first official agenda at the G7 summit in Elmar, Germany in 2015, saying that it would lead to the loss of trust in hospitals. At the Ise-Shima Summit in Japan, following Germany, Prime Minister Abe took it up as a formal agenda. When an infectious disease patient occurs in a hospital, publicizing and taking major measures needs to be extremely serious because the impacts that follows could damage the hospital management.

   Verification of transmission of resistant strains from affected individuals in ICU

   Formal agenda for infectious disease control by drug- resistant bacteria at the G7 Ise-Shima Summit

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